An image personifying the four virtues Ballet Comique de la ReineFour cardinal virtues were recognized in classical antiquity and in traditional Christian theology: Cicero expanded on them, and AmbroseAugustine of Hippoand Thomas Aquinas  adapted them while adding a set of theological virtues.
Link to Publisher's Website. A Thomistic Perspective, Jean Porter, an established moral theologian who has written for decades on natural law theory and virtue ethics, seeks to address this question.
The outcome is a rich, nuanced, and lucid account of a Thomistic theory of justice, which sees justice primarily as a stable disposition formed within a human agent.
Yet, as Porter has long emphasized in her writings, natural law and virtue are closely intertwined in a Thomistic theory. While justice as a virtue and justice as a norm are seemingly in tension with each other, they are by no means mutually exclusive: While she recognizes the necessity of impersonal institutional structures in contemporary societies, Porter also sees an immense loss in the modern eclipse of justice as personal virtue, given the role it plays in natural human flourishing.
Based on her perfectionist framework, in chapter 1 Porter provides an outline of the Thomistic theory of virtue, and the virtue of justice in particular.
Unlike other virtues stemming from passion, justice as a virtue of the will perfects a human agent by placing her in a right relationship with others. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the issue of the will in Aquinas.
While a human agent has innate knowledge of the good, she also should be directed toward her final end in a self-reflective manner.
In the third chapter, Porter turns to the topic of justice as a normative ideal.
In this regard, Porter appears to part ways with those who have denounced contemporary rights-talk as a serious aberration from the Christian tradition by pointing to its strong linkage with acquisitive individualism and secular modernity e.
In chapter 4, Porter discusses how the precepts of justice are specified and applied in concrete situations, and thereby result in an action. Engaging with contemporary theorists of moral emotion, Porter emphasizes the import of emotions like anger in human action for justice, while carefully differentiating the will from the moral emotion.
To what extent would Aquinas acknowledge the contingent connection between virtue and flourishing? These questions deserve a serious response from Porter, especially when her work implicitly touches upon the issues treated with care by Tessman.
Anyone interested in Thomas Aquinas, justice theories, or virtue ethics will greatly benefit from reading this volume.
About the Reviewer s: Jean Porter is John A. · Aristotle defined vice and virtue as: vice is an excess or deficiency of virtue, and virtue is the mean between two accompanying vices that exists within a “sphere”.  For example, in the sphere of “getting and spending”, “charity” is the virtuous mean (the srmvision.com Hursthouse and Justice In many ways Hursthouse’s famous “Virtue Theory and Abortion” ()11 set the terms for much of the modern virtue ethics movement which she later developed and deepened in her book On Virtue Ethics () In her book Hursthouse has a relatively short discussion of justice in which she mainly tries to justify the srmvision.com The notion of justice as a virtue began in reference to a trait of individuals, and to some extent remains so, even if today we often conceive the justice of individuals as having some (grounding) reference to social srmvision.com://srmvision.com While in the East politeness considered as an important social virtue is present (and even central) in the theoretical and practical expressions of the Confucian, Taoist and Buddhist traditions, it srmvision.com For Aristotle, justice is a virtue but unlike the other virtues he discusses in his Ethics.
Whereas each virtue was defined as the mean between two vices, justice is not the mean of two vices since injustice, the opposite of justice, is but only one srmvision.com://srmvision.com The virtue of justice.
Now the subhead in our discussion of justice was “Rationality in the Evaluation of Men,” and I have so far only been discussing moral judgment. So I want to note here that moral judgment is not the only form of evaluating men.
Moral values are the values that shape all of a man's behavior.