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Anarcha-feminism[ edit ] Anarcha-feminism also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism combines anarchism with feminism. It generally views patriarchy as a manifestation of involuntary coercive hierarchy that should be replaced by decentralized free association.
Anarcha-feminists believe that the struggle against patriarchy is an essential part of class struggleand the anarchist struggle against the state. In essence, the philosophy sees anarchist struggle as a necessary component of feminist struggle and vice versa.
Susan Brown claims that "as anarchism is a political philosophy that opposes all relationships of power, it is inherently feminist".
He argued that "[e]qual rights must belong to men and women" so that women can "become independent and be free to forge their own way of life".
Bakunin foresaw the end of "the authoritarian juridical family " and "the full sexual freedom of women". The Woman's Voicewhich was published nine times in Rosario between 8 January and 1 Januaryand was revived, briefly, in A similar paper with the same name was reportedly published later in Montevideowhich suggests that Bolten may also have founded and edited it after her deportation.
Its central theme was that of the multiple nature of women's oppression. An editorial asserted, "We believe that in present-day society nothing and nobody has a more wretched situation than unfortunate women.
Its feminism can be seen from its attack on marriage and upon male power over women. Its contributors, like anarchist feminists elsewhere, developed a concept of oppression that focused on gender oppression.
Marriage was a bourgeois institution which restricted women's freedom, including their sexual freedom. Marriages entered into without love, fidelity maintained through fear rather than desire, oppression of women by men they hated—all were seen as symptomatic of the coercion implied by the marriage contract.
It was this alienation of the individual's will that the anarchist feminists deplored and sought to remedy, initially through free love and then, and more thoroughly, through social revolution. Free Women was an anarchist women's organization in Spain that aimed to empower working class women.
The organization was based on the idea of a "double struggle" for women's liberation and social revolution and argued that the two objectives were equally important and should be pursued in parallel. In order to gain mutual support, they created networks of women anarchists.
Flying day-care centres were set up in efforts to involve more women in union activities. Working under a male pen nameshe was able to explore lesbian themes  at a time when homosexuality was criminalized and subject to censorship and punishment.
In the past decades two films have been produced about anarcha-feminism. Libertarias is a historical drama made in about the Spanish anarcha-feminist organization Mujeres Libres. According to Marxist feminists, private property gives rise to economic inequality, dependence, political and domestic struggle between the sexes, and is the root of women's oppression in the current social context.
Marxist feminism's foundation is laid by Friedrich Engels in his analysis of gender oppression in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State He argues that a woman's subordination is not a result of her biological disposition but of social relations, and that men's efforts to achieve their demands for control of women's labor and sexual faculties have gradually solidified and become institutionalized in the nuclear family.
Through a Marxist historical perspective, Engels analyzes the widespread social phenomena associated with female sexual morality, such as fixation on virginity and sexual purity, incrimination and violent punishment of women who commit adulteryand demands that women be submissive to their husbands.
Ultimately, Engels traces these phenomena to the recent development of exclusive control of private property by the patriarchs of the rising slaveowner class in the ancient mode of production, and the attendant desire to ensure that their inheritance is passed only to their own offspring: In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, both Clara Zetkin and Eleanor Marx were against the demonization of men and supported a proletariat revolution that would overcome as many male—female inequalities as possible.
Orthodox Marxists argue that most Marxist forerunners claimed by feminists or "Marxist feminists" including Clara Zetkin   and Alexandra Kollontai   were against capitalist forms of feminism. They agreed with the main Marxist movement that feminism was a bourgeois ideology counterposed to Marxism and against the working class.
Instead of feminism, the Marxists supported the more radical political program of liberating women through socialist revolution, with a special emphasis on work among women and in materially changing their conditions after the revolution.Socialist feminists attempted to produce a creative synthesis of radical feminism and Marxist feminism.
As is illustrated in Barbara Ehrenreich’s article, different socialist feminists make this . Marxists Internet Archive Library of Feminist Writers.
Barbara Ehrenreich () American Socialist feminist and journalist. [Full Biography] Sheila Rowbotham () British socialist feminist; wrote for the Trotskyist ‘Black Dwarf’ before publishing ‘Women’s Liberation and the New Politics’ arguing that women were oppressed in.
Socialist feminists attempted to produce a creative synthesis of radical feminism and Marxist feminism. As is illustrated in Barbara Ehrenreich’s article, different socialist feminists make this .
Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies concerned with gender inequalities and equal rights for women.
The term “feminism” originated from the French word “feminisme,” coined by the utopian socialist Charles Fourier, and was first used in English in the s, in association with the movement for equal political and legal.
It is possible to add up Marxism and feminism and call the sum “socialist feminism.” In fact, this is probably how most socialist feminists see it most of the time – as a kind of hybrid, pushing our feminism in socialist circles, our socialism in feminist circles.
An Anthology of Western Marxism: From Lukács and Gramsci to Socialist-feminism. Gottlieb, Roger S. Herbert Marcuse, and Jürgen Habermas; and contemporary socialist-feminists Sheila Rowbotham, Juliet Mitchell, Barbara Ehrenreich, Heidi Hartmann, and Ann Ferguson.