Liebig added a long list of related compounds. Neither etherin nor ethyl appeared any longer as fundamental radicals, but as combinations of acetyl with hydrogen. The formulas were compatible both with his own view that ether is an organic oxide and with the view of Dumas and Boullay that the compounds of ether resemble those of ammonia. He had already been to some degree aware of that.
Techniques for calculating water saturation Sw in wellbores can be determined by the following primary methods: Sw calculations from resistivity well logs by application of a model relating Sw to porosity, connate-water resistivity, and various rock electrical properties.
Combinations of these methods. This listing is the chronological order in which data are likely to become available, not in a ranked order based on the accuracy of the various methods. The choice of which Sw-calculation approach to use is often controlled by the availability of the various types of data.
If no OBM cores have been cut, then this technique cannot be used unless funds are spent to acquire such data from one or more newly drilled wells.
This is not a high incremental cost when OBM use is planned for other purposes. Resistivity logs are run in all wells, so these data are available for making standard-log-analysis Sw calculations. The technique chosen to calculate Sw is often a hybrid that combines the use of two of these basic data sources.
For example, the OBM-core Sw data can be used in combination with the resistivity logs to expand the data set used to include all wells and the whole of the hydrocarbon column. Data availability and data quality This section discussed the input-data availability and data quality issues for each Sw technique.
These considerations often control the initial choice of methodology to calculate Sw and need to be addressed at the start of the project to determine whether it is practically possible to fill gaps in the database in order to use a more accurate Sw-calculation approach.
This discussion assumes that accurate porosity values are available from the routine-core-analysis database and that porosity is calculated point by point from the well logs.
The discussion focuses on particular aspects that affect the choice of Sw methodology. Many of the database considerations are discussed on the petrophyscial database page.
Resistivity logs Wells generally have one variety or another of laterolog or induction resistivity log because they are broadly useful and because government regulations typically demand that they be recorded. This generally provides point-by-point data from the top of the hydrocarbon column down through any aquifer intervals that are present.
However, in many fields, the early wells are spread thinly over the reservoir area, but the later development wells are drilled only in areas chosen to maximize rate and recovery while minimizing costs.
This means that, often, few wells are drilled downdip where the hydrocarbon column thins because of an underlying aquifer, or in the potentially thin updip limits of the reservoir. In such areas, there may, therefore, be few resistivity logs.
Laterologs are preferred to induction logs when the drilling mud has moderate to high salinity. This limitation of induction tools arises because of the excessive conductivity signal from the borehole and the mud-filtrate-invaded zone. Deep laterolog tools read too high when measuring immediately beneath anhydrite and salt,  and alternative resistivity curves should be selected.
When formation resistivity, Rt, is very high, previous generations of induction tools had limited accuracy, but current tools are much improved.
Although the deep induction measurement is a running average over many vertical feet, modern tools include systems to deconvolve the raw log and provide a final log with a good vertical resolution.
Deep invasion of water-based mud WBM filtrate affects all resistivity logs, and, in the extreme, the available resistivity log may be used only qualitatively. At the opposite extreme, when oil-based mud OBM filtrate invades a hydrocarbon reservoir, the invading OBM filtrate generally displaces only the reservoir oil and gas, leaving the Sw unchanged.
Here, invasion of OBM does not usually change the deep-formation or the invaded-zone resistivity. For moderate invasion depths, the logging company charts are sometimes used to correct the deep-reading log to provide a better estimate of Rt.
Pad-mounted shallow-reading microresistivity logs measure Rxo, the resistivity of the mud-filtrate-invaded zone. When used together with the deeper-reading tools, these logs provide valuable information about the mobility of the reservoir fluids, including the presence of tar.
In WBM wells, they also provide an estimate of the residual-hydrocarbon saturation, Sorw. Connate-brine resistivity data An accurate value of connate-brine resistivity, Rw, or its values and distribution throughout the reservoir, are required for accurate Sw calculations using resistivity logs.
Temperature estimates are also required. A first check on the Rw of the aquifer is to back-calculate the apparent Rw with the Archie equation using the invasion-corrected resistivity logs and the best estimates of a and m parameters.
Information on the mud-filtrate composition and temperature is used with the SP deflection to calculate Rw. When OBM-core salinity measurements are not available, the SP log provides the only evidence of possible Rw variations in the hydrocarbon column. For the oil or gas column, the determination of the Rw value or values is far more of a challenge because the reservoir water will not flow.In December , EPA published "METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER", EPA///, a manual containing 13 methods for approximately potential drinking water contaminants.
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