The background information of italy

Lake Como Lake Como, Italy: Lake Como is long 50kmslender and extremely deep. Visitors ever since have admired the blue waters and relaxed in luxurious villas in the wooded lakeside slopes above. Today, most of the towns around the shores of Lake Como are popular with tourists, walkerscyclists and swimmers.

The background information of italy

The kingdom of Italy, much like Germany, had been formed in the mid 19th century out of various states, some of which had Orders and awards of their own. Those of House of Savoy took on a sort of national character similar to Prussia within the new Germanybut the others were not discontinued.

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Many chivalric orders had little exposure during World War I, we include them on their one Italian Orders pagesince they do show up in formal photographs of war-era prominent people both Italian and non-Italians.

Membership in the Orders was usually not restricted to nobility, but based on individual merit. The grade one received, however, was usually a function of age and status. While very exclusive, the collar was bestowed upon high ranking generals. While the founder had originally conceived an overall number of 15 members to honour the 15 "delights" of the Blessed Virgin 14 knights plus the Grand Masterin King Vittorio Emanuele II raised the number of knights from 14 to 20; but the Grand Master, the princes of his royal blood, clergymen and foreigners were supposed to be calculated as an extra to this fixed number.

Untill the fall of monarchy, the Knighthood of the Holy Annunciation equalled nobility, and gave right to the title of "Excellency" and "Cousin of the King", with precedence, in all ceremonies, over the highest offices of state.

The Annunziata's collar could be conferred on non-nobles, but not on non-catholics: Each collar exists in two versions: Collars were to be returned to the King after the death of a Knight.

Nevertheless, during last decades many collars went missing, as the Duce's Benito Mussolini one. Although the medallion is worn suspended to a golden collar, a ribbon to be used on uniforms was indeed instituted by Royal Decree in During the monarchy, this was to be placed above all other merits and awards.

After the fall of monarchy the Italian Republican Government obviously denied acknowledgement of this order, which was never discontinued, being dynastic patrimony of the existing House of Savoy, and ist still, though very seldom, conferred.


Born from the union of two ancient and different Orders which, for particular reasons, only in the XVI Century were combined under the Mastery of the House of Savoy.

The Order of St. Maurice and Lazarus was awarded with some frequency among generals and colonels. From its origins, the Order of St. The origins of the Order of St. Lazarus can be, on the contrary, brought back to the foundation, aroundof an Hospital for Leprosy in Jerusalem by a group of crusaders who called themselves "Brothers of St.

Lazarus" Lazarus was the poor leprous beggar, described in the Bible by the Evangelist St. Luke Luke, chapter 16, verseswho became patron saint of lepers. Under the Grand Mastery of Duke Emanuele Filiberto "Iron Head", the two orders were declared united by Pope Gregory XIII inone year after the battle of Lepanto, in order to fight the infidels; nevertheless, already during the XVI century the newborn order missed its military "raison d'etre", shifting instead towards the original hospital rule of St.

Brought back in favour by King Vittorio Emanuele II, the Order was sparingly conferred for distinguished service in civilian or military affairs, as an exclusive award compared with the more common Order of the Crown of Italy.

The background information of italy

Because of the fall of monarchy, the Italian Government in changed the Order which no longer was officially acknowledged as such in "Ente Morale" Non-profit Corporation and kept in function its hospitals, churches, orphanages and schools which are now under the High Patronage of the President of the Republic.

As for the House of Savoy, still owner for dynastic reasons of the Grand Mastery, the pretender to Italy's Throne Prince Vittorio Emanuele IV is still conferring from his exile knightoods of this important Order which was never discontinued.

Awarded for especially distinguished service in war.

The background information of italy

The first three classes had the royal crown above the cross. The Officer class had the cross suspened from a 'trophy' of flags.

The lowest class, the Knight, suspended the cross from a simple ring. The Knight class could be awarded to soldiers and sailors. With the fall of the monarchy, this Order was retained, but renamed the 'Order of Military Merit of Italy. It was awarded to Italian and foreigner citizens, both civilians and soldiers, as a token of national gratitude for their accomplishments which could include a long military career with a 'clean' record.

It was divided in the usual five classes, worn in the customary ways: Between the cross arms were four knots of Savoy "love knots in gold filigree. The crown was used for the coronation - among many others - of Charlemagne, Napoleon I and all the Kings of Italy. With the fall of monarchy the order, being considered national, and not of dynastic property, was discontinued and replaced in by the Meritorious Order of the Republic of Italy "Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana".

This medal was instituted in March by King Albert of Sardinia in three classes: When awarded, the recipient's name was written on the reverse of the medal. During WWII, the "Italian Socialist Republic" the arms and crown were replaced by a Roman short sword, point upwards, on a background of laurel and oak leaves.

This bronze cross was instituted by King Victor Emanuel III on 19 January and was also awarded to those who, wounded in combat, were given the Medal of the Wounded or to those who, mentioned for war merit, received a promotion.The Office of Website Management, Bureau of Public Affairs, manages this site as a portal for information from the U.S.

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More information about Italy is available on the Italy Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.. U.S.-ITALY RELATIONS. The United States established diplomatic relations with Italy in following the unification of most of the peninsula into one state.

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