The characteristics of naturalism in political science

They hold that there is nothing more to the mental, biological and social realms than arrangements of physical entities. The driving motivation for this kind of ontological naturalism is the need to explain how special entities can have physical effects. Thus many contemporary thinkers adopt a physicalist view of the mental realm because they think that otherwise we will be unable to explain how mental processes can causally influence our bodies and other physical items.

The characteristics of naturalism in political science

Many scientific advances have been resisted by religion. The rise of science and atheism can be attributed to a period of rapid cultural and intellectual development called the Renaissance. Beginning around years ago in Europe, it led to Western, secular values dominating the world, infusing liberal and atheistic attitudes into unprepared cultures.

Though many religious leaders rejected these values, some attempted to reinterpret scripture for greater agreement with science.

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This led to disharmony in many world religions, where those reluctant to change distanced themselves from reformers. As a result, old religions splintered into new sects, each with its own interpretation of traditional beliefs. Over the centuries, science has consistently provided further cause for panic, provoking hostile reactions from religious believers.

However, unlike traditional atheism, science never intended to threaten religion. When Edwin Hubble proved the existence of an expanding universe, the evidence was so convincing and the conclusion so irrefutable that it became the domain of common sense.

When Charles Darwin recognized evolution through natural selection, the unambiguous utility of its application to all facets of the natural world gave us a tantalizing avenue to pursue our origins. With the Big Bang, evolution, and a wealth of other knowledge-based advances, science has inadvertently forced the reinterpretation of religion in places where its dogma is in conflict with overt truth.

The characteristics of naturalism in political science

Such a battle should concern neither side. The illimitable iteration of cause and effect will always establish an empyreal abode. For example, if the Universe started with an explosion then one could claim God caused the explosion to occur. If dinosaur fossils are found then God put them there to test our faith.

If the Earth is billions of years old, then a day in the Genesis story is equal to hundreds of millions of years. These are actual interpretations of the Bible that have been forced into existence by science.

Is nature too beautiful to be a product of evolution? Evolution vs Intelligent Design Rather than reconcile scripture with evolutionary theory, Christians invented a new theory called Intelligent Design ID. It claimed that living things are too complex to be explained by the randomness of natural selection.

The unsupported suggestion that a creator God must therefore be the cause revealed the religious underpinning of the theory. This lack of impartiality saw Intelligent Design fail to become an established scientific theory. Impartiality is crucial to the scientific method.

Scientists look for evidence to derive answers, but creationists look for evidence to support a particular answer. This biased search for evidence is characteristic of the psychology of religion.

Religions typically include a number of comforting beliefs afterlife, loving god, purposeful existence, etc that believers are emotionally invested in, and dependent on. Believers are therefore motivated to find evidence that supports and reinforces their beliefs.

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Thus, all that opposes their beliefs is automatically dismissed, and all in favor is given utmost attention. For the same reason, believers will surround themselves with people who share their beliefs, providing further illusory reinforcement.

The group becomes a source of identity and pride, and the pleasure derived from satiating this pride is reason enough to bias their approach to evaluating evidence.Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations.

Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term.

Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the . Political Socialisation refers to the process of recruiting individuals into political roles and to give them training in citizenship, political Socialisation acts through various agencies such as family, church, schools, work groups, voluntary associations and media of communications.

The characteristics of naturalism in political science

Naturalism doesn’t undermine the need or possibility of responsibility and morality, but it places them within the world as understood by science. However, naturalism does call into question the basis for retributive attitudes, namely the idea that individuals could have done otherwise in the situation in which their behavior arose and so deeply deserve punishment.

Social science is a important category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches, each of which is considered a social science. The social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, .

Metaphysical naturalism, also called "ontological naturalism" and "philosophical naturalism", is a philosophical worldview and belief system that holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences, i.e., those required to understand our physical environment by mathematical modeling.

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Naturalism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)