The roots of civilization trace back to
A text by Avicennafounder of Avicennian logic The works of Al-KindiAl-FarabiAvicennaAl-GhazaliAverroes and other Muslim logicians were based on Aristotelian logic and were important in communicating the ideas of the ancient world to the medieval West.
Avicenna's word for a meaning or notion ma'nawas translated by the scholastic logicians as the Latin intentio; in medieval logic and epistemologythis is a sign in the mind that naturally represents a thing. A universal term e. In response to this tradition, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi — began a tradition of Neo-Avicennian logic which remained faithful to Avicenna's work and existed as an alternative to the more dominant Post-Avicennian school over the following centuries.
He further claimed that induction itself is founded on a process of analogy. His model of analogical reasoning was based on that of juridical arguments. When the study of logic resumed after the Dark Agesthe main source was the work of the Christian philosopher Boethiuswho was familiar with some of Aristotle's logic, but almost none of the work of the Stoics.
An important work in this tradition was the Logica Ingredientibus of Peter Abelard — His direct influence was small,  but his influence through pupils such as John of Salisbury was great, and his method of applying rigorous logical analysis to theology shaped the way that theological criticism developed in the period that followed.
Supposition theory deals with the way that predicates e. Can a term supposit for a non-existing individual? Some medievalists have argued that this idea is a precursor of modern first-order logic.
Syncategoremata are terms which are necessary for logic, but which, unlike categorematic terms, do not signify on their own behalf, but 'co-signify' with other words.
Examples of syncategoremata are 'and', 'not', 'every', 'if', and so on. The theory of consequences. A consequence is a hypothetical, conditional proposition: For example, 'if a man runs, then God exists' Si homo currit, Deus est.
There, Ockham distinguishes between 'material' and 'formal' consequences, which are roughly equivalent to the modern material implication and logical implication respectively.
Similar accounts are given by Jean Buridan and Albert of Saxony. Between andthere were eight editions, and the book had considerable influence after that.
The account of propositions that Locke gives in the Essay is essentially that of the Port-Royal: So that proposition consists in the putting together or separating these signs, according as the things which they stand for agree or disagree.
Another influential work was the Novum Organum by Francis Baconpublished in The title translates as "new instrument". This is a reference to Aristotle 's work known as the Organon. In this work, Bacon rejects the syllogistic method of Aristotle in favor of an alternative procedure "which by slow and faithful toil gathers information from things and brings it into understanding".
For example, in finding the cause of a phenomenal nature such as heat, 3 lists should be constructed: Then, the form nature or cause of heat may be defined as that which is common to every situation of the presence list, and which is lacking from every situation of the absence list, and which varies by degree in every situation of the variability list.
Other works in the textbook tradition include Isaac Watts 's Logick: Although the latter was one of the last great works in the tradition, Mill's view that the foundations of logic lie in introspection  influenced the view that logic is best understood as a branch of psychology, a view which dominated the next fifty years of its development, especially in Germany.
Hegel indicated the importance of logic to his philosophical system when he condensed his extensive Science of Logic into a shorter work published in as the first volume of his Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences.
The "Shorter" or "Encyclopaedia" Logic, as it is often known, lays out a series of transitions which leads from the most empty and abstract of categories—Hegel begins with "Pure Being" and "Pure Nothing"—to the " Absolutethe category which contains and resolves all the categories which preceded it.
Despite the title, Hegel's Logic is not really a contribution to the science of valid inference. Rather than deriving conclusions about concepts through valid inference from premises, Hegel seeks to show that thinking about one concept compels thinking about another concept one cannot, he argues, possess the concept of "Quality" without the concept of "Quantity" ; this compulsion is, supposedly, not a matter of individual psychology, because it arises almost organically from the content of the concepts themselves.
His purpose is to show the rational structure of the "Absolute"—indeed of rationality itself. The method by which thought is driven from one concept to its contrary, and then to further concepts, is known as the Hegelian dialectic.
Although Hegel's Logic has had little impact on mainstream logical studies, its influence can be seen elsewhere: Carl von Prantl 's Geschichte der Logik in Abendland — Bradley's Principles of Logic The economic, political, and philosophical studies of Karl Marxand in the various schools of Marxism.
Logic and psychology[ edit ] Between the work of Mill and Frege stretched half a century during which logic was widely treated as a descriptive science, an empirical study of the structure of reasoning, and thus essentially as a branch of psychology.
Theodor Lipps described logic as "a specific discipline of psychology". It was also subjected to an extended and destructive critique by Edmund Husserl in the first volume of his Logical Investigationsan assault which has been described as "overwhelming".
Such criticisms did not immediately extirpate what is called " psychologism ". For example, the American philosopher Josiah Roycewhile acknowledging the force of Husserl's critique, remained "unable to doubt" that progress in psychology would be accompanied by progress in logic, and vice versa.srmvision.com - Buy How Deep are the Roots of Indian Civilization?: Archaeology Answers book online at best prices in India on srmvision.com Read How Deep are the Roots of Indian Civilization?: Archaeology Answers book reviews & author details and more at srmvision.com Free delivery on qualified srmvision.com: B.
B. Lal. The history of logic deals with the study of the development of the science of valid inference.
Formal logics developed in ancient times in India, China, and Greece. Greek methods, particularly Aristotelian logic (or term logic) as found in the Organon, found wide application and acceptance in Western science and mathematics for millennia. . The Turks, for example, come from Siberia, and "Dravidian" languages can be traced to Iran.
The tribes coming to India brought horses, as is clear from the archaeological record, and chariots and occasionally fought big battles. The far fewer Indo-Aryan speaking people who came to India encountered populations with deep religious roots.
History of Hinduism denotes a wide variety of related religious traditions native to the Indian subcontinent. Its history overlaps or coincides with the development of religion in Indian subcontinent since the Iron Age, with some of its traditions tracing back to prehistoric religions such as those of the Bronze Age Indus Valley srmvision.com has thus been called the "oldest religion" in the.
Greek civilization alone affected All the Eastern Europe, Roman Empire and all the way to India. If we talk of Indian civilization, Four countries inherited it. India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and arguably Nepal.
Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now!